Question 1: Who is considered the first American President?
George Washington is known as the first president of the United States of America serving from 1789 to 1797.
The American Revolution to gain independence from Great Britain took place between 1765 and 1783, escalating to global war (involving the French, Spanish and Dutch) in 1775. The American Colonies formed the Continental Congress in 1774 to co-ordinate the rebellion against King George. The Continental Congress declared the Colonies of America free and independent States on July 2nd, 1776. The Treaty of Paris in 1783 formally ended the war.
From 1774 to 1783 the highest office of the American Rebel Forces was the Continental Congress of the United Colonies, later to become the United States. It consisted of 56 delegates from the 13 colonies. The Chairman of the Continental Congress was called the President, as he presided as chairman over the meetings of the Congress. A different delegate was elected each time the Congress met.
The first President of the Continental Congress was Peyton Randolph of Virginia. There were eight Presidents from 1774 to 1781, with Peyton Randolph serving three times.
From 1781 to 1789 The Continental Congress meet under the structure of the Articles of Confederation that outlined the constitutional political structure of the Congress. There were ten Presidents of the United States Congress during this period.
So, though George Washington is the First President of the United States of America, there were about thirteen presidents (some serving more than once) before the formally recognised office.